BIOTIN (VITAMIN B7, VITAMIN H) – EMDR: 30 mcg to 100 mcg

Used For:  Converts food to energy and is required for the synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids.  Signs of biotin deficiency include a scaly, oily skin rash, loss of hair, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, loss of appetite, red inflamed tongue, and fatigue.

FOLIC ACID (VITAMIN B9) – RDA: men, 200 mcg; women, 180 mcg; women of childbearing age, 400 mcg

Used For:  Supports the immune function and may deter atherosclerosis and some cancers of mucous membranes.   Folic acid is a critical component of rna and dna, which is the genetic material that controls the growth and repair of all cells.

NIACIN (VITAMIN B3) – RDA: men, 19 mg; women, 15 mg; pregnant women, 17 mg

Used For:  Converts food into energy; build red blood cells, synthesize hormones, fatty acids, and steroids; maintain skin, nerves, and blood vessels; support the gastrointestinal tract; stabilize mental health; and detoxify certain drugs and chemicals in the body.

VITAMIN A (BETA CAROTENE, RETINOL) – RDA:  men, 5,000 IU (or 3 mg beta carotene); women, 4,000 IU (or 2.4 mg beta carotene)

Used For:  Essential for good vision, healthy skin, hair, and mucous membranes of the nose, throat, respiratory system, and digestive system.  It is necessary for the growth of bones and teeth.


Used For:  Bolsters metabolism, maintain healthy skin and muscle tone, enhance immune and nervous system function, and promote cell growth and division –  including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia.

VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) – RDA: men, 1.5 mg; women, 1.1 mg

The “energy vitamin” is used to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and it helps convert excess glucose into stored fat.  It contributes to maintaining normal appetite, muscle tone, and mental health.

VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) – RDA:  men, 1.7 mg; women, 1.3 mg; pregnant women, 1.6 mg

Helps produce energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It promotes healthy skin, hair, nails, and mucus membranes; aids the production of blood cells, corticosteroids, and thyroid hormones; and is required for the proper function of the nerves, eyes, and adrenal glands.  It is also used to treat acne, anemia, cataracts, and depression.


It is required for converting food to energy; building red blood cells; making bile; and synthesizing fats, adrenal gland steroids, antibiotics, and acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters-chemicals that permit nerve transmission.  Used in dexpanthenol lotions and creams, it relieves the pain of burns, cuts, and abrasions; reduces skin inflammation; and speeds wound healing.

VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE) – RDA: men, 2 mg; women, 1.6 mg; pregnant women, 2.2 mg

It supports immune function, nerve-impulse transmission (especially in the brain), energy metabolism, and red blood cell synthesis.  It can sometimes alleviate carpal tunnel syndrome, infant seizures, and premenstrual syndrome.

VITAMIN B12 (COBALMIN0 – RDA: adults, 2 mcg; pregnant women, 2.2 mcg

Used for converting fats, carbohydrates, and protein into energy, and assisting in the synthesis of red blood cells. It is critical for producing  the genetic materials RNA and DNA, as well as myelin, a fatty substance that forms a protective sheath around nerves.

VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID) – RDA: adults, 60 mg; pregnant women, 70 mg

It has the ability to prevent and treat scurvy.  It helps to heal wounds, burns, bruises, and broken bones.  It is an immune system booster and a antioxidant.  It may alleviate the pain of rheumatoid arthritis, protect against atherosclerosis and heart disease, and help prevent some forms of cancer, and has the reputed potential to prevent (yet unproved) the common cold.

VITAMIN D (CHOLECALCIFEROL, ERGOCALCIFEROL) – RDA:  adults, 200 IU (5 mcg); children, adolescents and pregnant women, 400 IU (10 mcg)

It prevents rickets, a disease calcium-deprived bone that results in bowlegs, knock-knees, and other bone defects.  Vitamin D supplements may help treat psoriasis and slow or even reverse some cancers, such as myeloid leukemia.

VITAMIN E – RDA: women, 12 IU (8mg); men and pregnant women or nursing women, 15 IU (10mg)

It is required for proper function of the immune system, endocrine system, and sex glands.  It prevents unstable molecule known as free radicals from damaging cells and tissues.

VITAMIN K (MENADIONE, PHYONADIONE) – RDA: men, 80 mcg; women, 65 mcg

Used to form essential proteins, mainly for blood clotting but also for kidney function and bone metabolism.


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